Assessment of the socio-economic impact of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Mongolia, November 2017

The assessment carried out under the contract with FAO in October-November 2017 was focused on the Khovd aimag most affected by PPR. The outbreak started first in July 2015 and covered entire valley of the Bulgan River in 2016. Many households from the Bulgan soum of Bayan-Ulgiy aimag, Bulgan, Ueynch, Munkhkhairkhan and Must soums were in the Tsunkhel Valley summer camps where the biggest PPR focus was created.

Seasonal migration and overgrazing have played key roles in spreading PPRV. The PPR outbreaks among saiga occurred in the period of saiga heat, snow eating and grazing feed deficiency.

PPR diagnosis was too late due to inadequate knowledge and skills of local vets who also failed to approach professional organizations without delays.

The vaccinations of sound flocks of households located around the PPR outbreak sharing the same pasture and water points with the affected flocks were effective and well-targeted. The vaccinations of the sound flocks that had no risks to contact with affected flocks were not necessary. The vaccinations of the recovered and naturally immunized herds after the mass diseases affected almost all households and the outbreaks already stopped were unnecessary.

If the PPR outbreak was recognized in November of 2015 any vaccinations were not needed. The vaccinations of the sound flocks in the 6 soums of the Khovd aimag, 12 soums of the Uvs aimag, 13 soums of the Zavkhan aimag, 8 soums of the Bayan-Ulgiy aimag and 16 soums of the Gobi-Altai aimag were unnecessary where goats and sheep were not affected and there were no risks to contact with affected animals.

For the Khovd aimag with reliable PPR-induced livestock death information, PPR outbreaks killed 11906 small ruminants. A herd turnover model estimates that the lost income opportunities due to animal losses account for MNT 1.705.8 million in discounted cumulative benefits over 5 year-period. On average, each of 954 affected households lost MNT 1.8 million as discounted cumulative income in 5 years – lifespan of small ruminants. PPR outbreak had serious impacts on other small stock value chain participants- middlemen, service providers, wholesale and retail traders and processors- causing them a total loss of MNT 825.6 m in 5 years making the total loss MNT 2,531.4 million.

The total cost spent on controlling PPR accounts for MNT 2448.8 million including MNT 217.1 million contributed by herder households. This shows that the PPR control costs are almost the same as the potential benefits suggesting that there is a significant scope for reducing costs if the control program was organized in a cost-efficient way.

PPR outbreak has totally stopped livestock and meat exports from 5 western aimags. The total value of lost saiga, ibex, and black-tail gazelle accounts for MNT 17.4 billion.